According to the World health organization, the cases of diabetic patients have increased to reach 422 million people worldwide since 1980 till 2014. The risk of diabetes mellites relies on its dangerous complications to the body such as blindness, stroke, myocardial infarction, and renal failure. 1 Insulin plays a vital role in glucose regulation inside the blood to all body tissues. There are two major types of diabetes mellitus: type 1 and type 2. In type 1, the body is in constant need of insulin. However, in type 2, the body requires insulin in only the late stages of the disease. 2 Type-2 diabetes occurs due to the inability of islet beta cells in the pancreas to produce a sufficient amount of insulin which results in high blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, and increase in body weight. 3 For a long time, type 2 diabetes has been treated with oral hypoglycemic medications and insulin in the late stages. Recently, studies showed that there is another mechanism that regulates this process which occurs through restoring normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism. 4
The magic key of medicinal plants to treat a wide variety of diseases relies on the existence of their phytochemicals. Although these chemicals are naturally produced by plants to protect them from external and internal stresses, they do a vital role in treating diseases. 5 One of the Significant management of type two diabetes is the use of Trigonella Foenum seed due to its effectiveness in enhancing the metabolism of lipids. 6 Recently, a few medicinal plants have been evaluated for their effect on SGLT1 and SGLT2 as a promising mechanism in diabetes treatment. To elaborate, Isolated compounds from Acer nikonese (Japanese origin) such as diarylheptanoids and acetogenin A and B showed a profound reduction in SGLT1, and SGLT2. As well, Alstonia macrophylla that has been used as a general tonic and other uses in Thailand was put under isolation. As a result, five percaline type of alkaloids showed good reduction of SGLT1 and SGLT2. Tropical lianas isolated from Gnetum gnemonoides in the southeast Asia pacific region have an anti-diabetic effect too. Two stilbene trimers isolated from the dried bark had an effect on SGLT1 and SGLT2. 7
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